Bolboci Lake - Pucioasa, Dambovita County
Butimanu Lake - Bucuresti, Dambovita County
Comisani Lake - Comisani, Dambovita County
Crevedia Lake - Crevedia, Dambovita County
Greci Lake - Greci, Dambovita County
Negru Lake - Moreni, Dambovita County
Pucioasa Lake - Pucioasa, Dambovita County
Scropoasa Lake - Dobresti, Dambovita County
Vacaresti Lake - Vacaresti, Dambovita County
Cornesti Lakes - Cornesti, Dambovita County
Ilfov Lakes - Mircea Voda, Dambovita County
Ilfoveni Lakes - Ilfoveni, Dambovita County
Targoviste Lakes - Targoviste, Dambovita County
Dobrești: Dobrești – trail to N on Valea Ialomitei (Ialomitei Valley) - marking - Cheile Orzei (Orzei Gorge) – confluence with Valea Scropoasa (Scropoasa Valley)...
Bușteni: Bușteni - S - Cascada Urlătorilor (Urlătorilor Waterfall) - V- Piatra Arsă (Burned Stone) - Cabana Peștera (Pestera Cabin) - over Ialomița River – Peștera Ialomiței (Ialomitei Cave) - S - Valea Ialomiței (downstream) - Cheile Zănoagei (Zănoagei Gorge) - Scropoasa Lake – Dobrești
Pucioasa: Pucioasa - Valea Ialomitei (Ialomitei Valley) - Pucioasa Lake - Dobresti (Pestera Ratei - Duck Cave) - Cheile Orzei (Orzei Gorge) - Scropoasa Lake - Cheile Zanoagei (Zănoagei Gorge) - trail - Bolboci Lake - Cheile Tatarului (Tatarului Gorge) - Pestera Ialomitei (Ialomitei Cave) - Valea Ialomitei (spring) - Omu Peak (2505 m altitude) and return or variants of routes
The Carpathian mountain unit, located in the Northern part, includes two mountains– Leaota and Bucegi – completely different as geological structure and appearance. Leaota Mountain is predominantly made of crystalline schists with slow slopes and round peaks. The valleys are very deep, accompanied by mountainsides with moderated slope, having the highest heights in Leaota Peak: 2133 m. Bucegi Mountain, made predominantly of sandstones and conglomerates and only partially of limestone, has frequent heights over 2000 m: Omu Peak - 2505 m, Doamnele Peak - 2402 m, Bătrâna Peak 2181 m. It is well marked in the Carpathian landscape through its steep slopes, which emphasize the external flanks through the variety of its relief. The alternation of sandstones, clays and conglomerates, the lithological irregularity of conglomerates determined the formation of a residual relief of towers and columns through decay and diferential erosion, with strange shapes, the most famous being Babele (The old women) and the Sphinx. In the upper basin of Ialomita predominates the karstic relief, with steep slopes, horns (Hornurile Țapului – He-goat Horns), sinkholes, gorges (Horoabele, Urșilor, Peșterii, Tătarului, Zănoagei, Orzei), caves (Ialomiței). The structural relief is emphasized through structural surfaces, steep slopes, mountain paths and structural racks. In the upper basin of Ialomița are also located numerous traces of quaternary glaciation: cirques below Mecetul Turcesc and from the spring of Sugărilor valley, glacial valleys, crests, moraines.
Ialomiței Cave, called Peștera Regilor (Cave of Kings), known also as Peștera Schitul Ialomiței (Ialomiței Monastery Cave), is located in Moroieni locality, Dâmbovița County, between Padina Cabin and Peștera Hotel, on the right side of Ialomiței Gorges, at an altitude of 1.660 metres.
It was carved by Horoaba stream, right confluent of Ialomița river, in the upper Jurassic limestone from the South-Eastern peak of Bătrâna Mountain and remains one of the most famous touristic attraction from Bucegi Mountains and even from the country.
The cave fascinates even from old times. The first mention was made by I. Kleinlauf in 1793, in a work about the caves from Transylvania. In 1897 it was considered the biggest underground cavity from the Romanian Principalities and in 1953 was carried out the first detailed plan by a team lead by Mihai Șerban and Iosif Viehman and published (1974) in the Speology Club Newsletter "Emil Racoviță''.
With galleries and rooms, Ialomiței Cave has a mixed deployment on one level, with a length of approximately 480 metres, of which 400 metres are accessible to tourists up to the point called ''Altar'', following upstream a portion of 80 metres, with galleries and rooms. The rooms Mihnea Vodă, Decebal, Sf. Maria, La Răspântie, La Altar, Grota ascunsă and Grota Urșilor can be admired, where skeletons of cave bear have been found.
Ialomiței Monastery is located at the entrance in the cave, with the titular saints Peter and Paul, built in the 16th century by the voivode of Wallachia Mihnea Vodă (the Mean). It is said that he would have been sheltered here for a period in his wandering to Transylvania (1510) and built the office for worship for thanking God after he got away from Turks. During the time the monastery burned many times (four times in four hundred years), but it was restored, being also built a body of cells and the headstone was placed by His Eminence Vasile Costin, Archbishop of Târgoviște, in 1993. The story of this monastery of monks is lost in ancient times, the Legend claiming that St. Andrew himself, the founder of Orthodox religion in Romania, would have taken refuge in the cave for a period.
At the base of the entrance in Ialomiței Cave there is also an old cemetery of the monks who lived here centuries ago. On one of the graves the stone is always warm. The measurements of radiesthesists proved that the place has an energetic load but they could not say what is the nature of this energy and what produces the vibrations detected inside the cave.
The cave opening with the shape of semiellipse spreads on a horizontal terrace at 18 metres above the bottom of the valley. The first room of the cave called ''Mihnea Vodă'' has a length of 115 metres, a width of 15 metres and a height of 10-25 metres. Before 1924, the Cave River was flowing through this cave. Today, this enters underground before reaching the cave and discharges way below in Ialomița.
The gallery ''Pasaj'' is next with the length of 20 metres and width between 1-8 metres. At the entrance in this gallery is located a metallic gate, which can be passed through only with the help of the guide in a wide corridor of 1-2 metres and 1,5—2 metres high. This corridor leads to dome-shaped ''Decebal'' rooms, from which more galleries start, among which Grota Sf. Maria (St. Marry Cave), called like this due to the resemblance of a stalagmite with the statue of Virgin Marry.
The biggest and most spectacular cavity is Sala Urșilor (Room of Bears). This has no water and has a stony soil. Bones at the level of the ground have been found at its discovery, which prove that approximately 10.000 years ago, here were probably the last shelters of cave bear ''Ursus Spelacus Blum''. A gallery of 2 metres high opens from Sala Urșilor (Room of Bears) called ''Fundul Peșterii'' (Bottom of the cave), which once had columns that united the ceiling with the ground. Galeria Apelor (Gallery of waters) is next until the ''Altar'', the place up to which the cave is accessible.
The point ''at the Altar'' would have been used, according to the tradition, by some hermits in the past in order to officiate the divine service. The stalactites are arranged so that they create the illusion of a church altar. Also, here flows the cave river called ''Izvorul de apă vie'' (Live water spring) about which it is said that it would be the holy water of Dacians, without bacteria or nitrates. It is presumed that the underground spring passes over massive silver deposits making the maximum pure water, while scientists claim that the purity is due to geo-magnetic anomalies. Also here is found a stone about which the legend says that it was given to people by Zalmoxis and if you touch it any wish comes true.
Concerning the fauna, representatives of almost all fauna groups have been found, which live in the caves of our country, noteworthy being the presence of a troglophile species of coleopterans, Duvalius (Duvaliotes) procerus, spread at the exterior on the mountains around Brașov.
The air temperature from the galleries varies between 9 and 12 Celsius degrees and the humidity is between 85 — 100%.
After rehabilitation, the old information and charging point was replaced with a new one, were modernized pedestrian alleys and the outer platform, were replaced stairways and footbridges, were installed video surveillance systems. Were purchased also sound equipment and was created a platform for supporting a removable metal scene where performances will take place, will be watched documentaries or will hold religious services.
Visitors can find here benches for rest, green bins and others.
The hydrographic network of Dâmbovița County is related to Ialomița, Argeș and Dâmbovița rivers (and their confluents) that cross the county territory.
The density of the hydrographic network is relatively high. An altitudinal zonation can be noticed depending on the natural factors, the highest density being in the mountain area (0,5 - 0,8 km/km2), decreasing in the Subcarpathians and reaching 0,3 km/km2 in the plain area.
There are three hydrographic basins in the county (BH Ialomița - 38 localities, BH-Dâmbovița - 27 localities, BH Argeș- 23 localities ) and 4 water management systems perform their activity in the territory (SGA Dâmbovița, SH Văcărești, SGA Golești and SGA Ilfov- Bucharest).
The most important flowing water that crosses Târgovişte territory, flowing on NV-SE direction, is Ialomiţa river, which has its springs in Bucegi Mountains. Ialomiţa has a permanent course laid out through bottom sill for protecting the road and railway bridge from Teiș and with a dam in front of the registered office of Apele Române (Romanian Waters) (Valea Voievozilor intake) from which is formed Târgoviște branch, downstream of the dam at approximately 200 m being a bottom sill. Due to the meander course, excessive erosions were created in the area of Teiș bridge, shore protections and consolidation works being carried out at the abutments.
The flow rate is variably influenced especially by precipitation falling mainly in the upper course of the hydrographic basin. The average flow rate is 9-13 mc/s and the speed of river water varies between 0,75 m/s and 8,4 m/s. Ialomiţa river collects the waters from this territory through numerous torrential valleys. From Ialomiţa river bed are detached Iazul Morilor – used to irrigate the vegetable crops from the limit of the city, a sluice of approx. 4 km long and another sluice of approx. 6 km long that provides downstream the flow rates of accumulations on Ilfov valley.
At the excessive precipitation from May 7th 2005, no flood phenomena took place on the territory of the city because the river has high shores of 5-7 m.
Ilfov river flows at 3-4 km West of Ialomiţa valley, which springs from Teişului forests and on which was set up a chain of lakes downstream of the municipality (Bunget, Ilfoveni, Udreşti). Within the territory of Târgovişte city can also be noticed the presence of Milioara stream (Mierea), canal and deviated towards Ilfov river. The underground water is found at different depths depending on the land form and varied petrography, specific to the foothill plain. Thus, on Ialomiţa terrace, the underground water is found at the average depth of 3-5 m and in the higher meadow of Ialomiţa and in the meadow of Ilfov and Milioara streams at the depth of 1,5-3 m.
There are at this moment 116 deep wells with a total utilizable discharge of 3.240 cubic metres/hour and a surface source with utilizable discharge of 1.260 cubic metres/hour. The only functioning source is the underground one, the surface one being in conservation.
The total authorized volume of water, took from the underground and water underground sources is Vmax = 23.493 thousand cubic metres / year, 116 wells (Hulubești, Dragomirești North-Mănești-Gheboieni, Dragomirești South, Lazuri-Văcărești) as follows:
Dragomirești North: 6.307 thousand cubic metres/years;
Dragomirești South: 788 thousand cubic metres/years;
Hulubești: 3.154 thousand cubic metres/years;
Mănești: 3.784 thousand cubic metres/years;
Lazuri – Văcărești: 9.460 thousand cubic metres/years.
For the water from underground sources, there are pumping stations at:
Lazuri, with utilizable discharge of 30.240 cubic metres/day
Dragomirești North with utilizable discharge of 31.104 cubic metres/day
Dragomirești South with utilizable discharge of 4.320 cubic metres/day
Hulubești with utilizable discharge of 12.960 cubic metres/day
Pumping station, treatment station with utilizable discharge of 12.960 thousand cubic metres/day
The soil and subsoil are a natural resource that must be managed in a sustainable way.
The soils from Târgovişte city area are dark red-brown illuvial clay soils specific to surfaces occupied in the past or in the present by cvercinee forests and covered with löesses or löessoid clays. The existence of a humus horizon of 20-40 cm offers these soils good fertility for cultivated plants (cereals, vegetables, etc.).
Besides the losses caused by urbanization, the soil on Târgovişte territory is mainly affected in the area of the industrial platform from the South of the city due to the emissions of dusts with content of heavy metals, resulted from industrial processes.
As mineral resources can be mentioned:
Gravel and sand existing in a strongly alluvial area;
Oil and petroleum gas exploited in the localities near the municipality: Teiş, Aninoasa, Răzvad through Târgovişte oil platform;
Natural gases (methane) are brought from large distances through the network of national transport and distribution or are imported.
Resources with landscape value – biodiversity (vegetation, fauna)
Important forest areas that represent economic resources but also with landscape value can be found within the range of approx. 15 km: Pădurea Bradului (Fir tree forest) (650 ha), with Aninoasa, Viforâta, Gorgota, Mănăstirea Dealu sections; Pădurea Priseaca (Priseaca forest) (1223 ha), on the administrative territory of Târgovişte municipality; Pădurea Teiş (Teiş forest) (2800 ha); Pădurea Lucieni (Lucieni forest) (2000 ha); Pădurea Râncaciov (Râncaciov forest) (2000 ha). The parts of these forests can be constituted as areas for rest and recreation.
36 trees with the value of natural monuments have been identified in Târgoviște municipality, from the most diverse species, namely: oaks (Quercus Robur), Japanese acacia (sophora japonica), larch (larex decidua), plane trees (platanus orientalis), chestnut trees (aescilus hippocastanum), ash trees (fraxinus tomentosa), linden trees (tillia tomentosa), spruce fir (picea excelsa), pine (pinus silvestris), American walnut (juglans nigra), whit mulberry tree (morus alba), honey tree (evodia hupehensis), pagodelo tree (ginko bilboa), Judas tree (ceris siliquastrum), water cypress (taxiodium distechum) and yew (taxus bacata). Most of them are found at the Museum of writers from Damboviteni, the rest were planted in different points of the city, such as Chindiei Park, Constantin Carabella National College, Economic High School and Targoviste Children Palace.
A special place is occupied by Dealul Mănăstirii (Monastery Hill), where we are witnessing the worrisome phenomenon of vegetation destruction, especially of pine forest and plantations from the Northern-North-Western side of the monastery, due to deforestation and pasturage, which leads to the disappearance of habitats from the area and landslips.
Among the grass specific to the area can be mentioned: orpin, wheat grass, clover. In May-June may plants blossom on pastures: dandelion, chamomile, daisy, buttercup, marigold. In the spring in the forests can be found violets, dog's tooth violets, hollowworts, wood anemone, oxlip, violas, as well as a rare plant, protected by law - liverwort (Hepatica transilvanica).
Near the lake on Ilfov and ponds can be found a paludous and aquatic vegetation made of reed, bulrush, rush, water buttercup. The ornamental vegetation includes trees and shrubs (chestnut, poplar, willow, privet, quickset, thuja, yew, etc.) and many species of flowers, among which can be mentioned roses, petunias, tulips. A part of the trees, especially poplars, reached the age of maturity and must be replaced with saplings.
The arable lands are mostly occupied by vegetable crops. The forests from Priseaca area are of common oak and oak. In the meadows of main water courses: Dâmbovița, Ialomița grow softwood forests (riverside coppice of white, black alder, poplar and willow).
The soils from Târgoviște city area are dark red-brown illuvial clay soils with humus horizon of 20-40 cm, with good fertility for cultivated plants. The soils are affected by the impact caused by urbanism and industrial activities, especially in the Southern area of the city.
The subsoil resources are represented by clays used for making bricks, sands and gravels, oil and gases. The clays have been exploited in the Northern part of the city. The old quarry was abandoned and a lake was created in the resulted excavation for a period of time. The oil structures from Târgoviște- Răzvad area are exploited through the well existing in the Northern part of the city in Mihai Bravu area.
On the territory of Târgovişte municipality are approx. 40 secular trees (oaks, linden trees, aristocratic acacia, mulberry trees, etc.) or species of trees from the Red List of plants (larch, yew) – most of them located in the park from the Museum of Dambovita writers – which should be protected as natural monuments.
The green areas in the housing areas, as well as alignment green areas bring their contribution by offering a healthier microclimate and are a potential reserve to the extent to which the preoccupation for the qualitative improvement of dendroflora plantations will increase. The cultivated vegetation is represented by wheat, barley, corn, rye, sunflower, alfalfa, clover, etc. In the higher meadow of Ialomiţa River are cultivated vegetables and greens: cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, onion, garlic, pepper, red peppers, spinach, salad, etc.). The orchards of fruit trees (apples, pears, plum trees) and vine plantations are found on the sunlit sides of surrounding hills.
The fauna is diverse, being characteristic to plain and hill areas. The forests around the city are populated by rabbits, foxes, badgers, polecats. The magpie and crow are located on the first place among birds. The aquatic fauna is represented by chub, barbel, common rudd, perch. The frequent domestic animals are: swine, bovines, ovines, caprines, equines, fowl and bees, dogs and cats.